This procedure allows inspecting and potentially treating abnormalities of the organs in the chest, such as lungs, heart, esophagus, and large vessels. During thoracoscopy, a small camera is introduced in the chest, and diagnosis plus/minus treatment can be performed through a key hole approach. Procedures that are offered at VSOA using thoracoscopy include exploration (inspection of the chest to look for abnormalities), lung lobe biopsy (taking a piece of lung tissue if it appears abnormal to find out what it is), a pericardectomy (removal of the sac that surrounds the heart). Surgeons should always be prepared to open the thorax (chest) and be familiar with pulmonary and cardiovascular surgical techniques. Therefore this procedure should only be performed by experienced veterinary surgeons, for example board-certified surgeons of the American or European College of Veterinary Surgery.